Boudica - Spartacus Educational

Boudica's army attacked Roman settlements at London, Colchester and St Albans. Roman historians claim that Boudica's army killed at least 70,000 people in these attacks. "They could not wait to cut throats, hang, burn and crucify." At the time the Roman soldiers were involved in a military …

Weapons and Warfare in the Ancient World - General ...

Before the military reorganization of Marius, the Roman army went through 3 phases with the legion reduced from 8400 men to 4000. Roman Military Sites in Britain Glossary, bibliography, summary of military events, introduction to forts and camps built by the Roman army. SAMH Homepage for the Society of Ancient Military Historians.

: Roman Military Equipment from the Punic Wars ...

The authors of this book have gathered a wealth of evidence from all over the Roman Empire - excavated examples as well as pictorial and documentary sources - to present a picture of what range of equipment would be available at any given time, what it would look like and how it would function.

(PDF) O Fortuna: a sideways look at the archaeological ...

C. van Driel-Murray (ed.), Roman Military Equipment: the Sources of Evidence. Proceedings of the Fifth Roman Military Equipment Conference, BAR International Series 476, (Oxford 1989), 1–11, 1989

Can We Trust the Ancient Texts? - HistoryNet

The modern historian studying Greek and Roman military history is a prisoner of the ancient texts. The single biggest obstacle to our understanding of ancient military history is the scarcity of reliable evidence. The Greeks' invention of history as a search for a rational explanation and understanding of events, expressed in written prose or ...


The Nature of the Evidence. Scholarship on decimation has not been commensurate with its importance as a startling instantiation of Roman military discipline. 2. In the ancient sources, Polybius' description of punishments and rewards in the Roman military camp provides the best evidence for such discipline in the earlier Republic. At 6.37, he

Huge Study Tracks The Global Evolution of Ancient Military ...

Oldest Roman Military Camp discovered in Italy was Built to Fend off Fierce Pirates The study was feasible because of the Seshat database. A decade-old initiative sponsored by the Evolution Institute, the " Seshat: Global History Databank " is comprised of data collected from archaeological, anthropological, and historical studies of ...

Alexander the Great - Classics - Oxford Bibliographies

Introduction. It has been said about Alexander the Great (b. 356–d. 323 BCE) that his name marked the end of an old world epoch and the beginning of a new one.Alexander's empire that stretched from the Danube to India indeed ushered in the Hellenistic age, when Greek culture expanded and merged with Asian and African cultures in the territories he conquered and even beyond.

Internet History Sourcebooks

The Army. Livy (59 BCE-17 CE): The Roman Way of Declaring War, c. 650 BCE, from History of Rome I.34 [At this Site] Valerius Maximus and Livy on Roman Soldiers [At CSUN] Josephus (37- after 93 CE): The Roman Army in the First Century CE, from The Jewish War, [This Site]

Library - Archaeology Data Service

For the post-Roman period there are two sunken huts, one built against a derelict Roman house, and some AS cemetery material. (Some late Roman military equipment is also discussed.) Evidence of late 8th and 9th centuries is rare. Historical evidence relating to Castle and Abbey is reviewed, and a small church was found to predate St John's Abbey.

Home - Troup County School System

Use evidence from the primary sources below to support your answer. Requirements: Your response must be in paragraph form and a minimum of 5 complete sentences. You must incorporate evidence from the primary sources with a minimum of at least one direct reference to a primary source. You must support your answer with evidence.

The History Blog » Blog Archive » Roman lead figurine is ...

Now part of the parish of Wall in Staffordshire, the Roman site of Letocetum was founded as a temporary military marching camp in the late 40s A.D., the early ears of the Roman conquest of Britain. The first timber fort was built around 55 A.D. during the campaign of governor Aulus Didius Gallus against the rebel Brigantes king Venutius.

Loyalty and the Sacramentum in the Roman Republican Army

The Roman army described inmost modern scholarly works is that ofthe early to mid-empire. Itis the army ofVindolanda and Hadrian'swall, the army whose accomplishments are recorded on the columns ofTrajan andMarcus Aurelius. There is, unsurprisingly, moreinformation and evidence available from these later periods.

Romans in Britain - The Roman Soldier's Helmet - Galea

Sculptural Evidence. M any sculptures have been found showing the Roman army in operation as well as individual memorial monuments to soldiers. The workmanship on these monuments and indeed the amount of weathering vary considerably but the better known examples such as Trajan's column may not be the best primary source for the type of helmets used at any given period of the Roman Empire.

Medicine in the Roman Army

in the Roman army had been advanced. Little more could have been done by the state for the care of suffering soldiers. The salu-brious climate of Baden, the proximity of the baths, the splendid equipment of the building, combined to make it a monument to the medical service in the Roman army.2 The rapid development under the Empire was due ...

The Fall of Rome: Excessive Military Spending

Excessive military spending played a major role in the Fall of the Roman Empire. The Roman government was spending more money on the army than needed. Military spending left few resources for other vital activities such as providing housing and maintaining public roads. The military had to share resources with Rome's other needs including roads.

Roman Army Sources - VROMA :: Home

Josephus on the Roman Army; Polybius on the Roman Maniple vs. the Greek Phalanx; Secondary Sources: Armamentarium: The Beginner's Guide to Roman Military Equipment; The Roman Army (Gary Brueggeman) The Glory That Was Rome (Daniel Green) The Roman Army in Britain (Peter Green) Great Battles of the Roman Republic (David Green) Military Medicos

The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation

The primary cause of Rome's fall was not internal weakness, as some historians have argued, but the deterioration of the Roman army. Arther Ferrill in his book, The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation, believes twentieth-century sensibilities have clouded the issue of Rome's fall discounting the military mechanism that made Rome a superpower in the ancient world.

Scene from the 'war panel' on the Standard of Ur depicting ...

In terms of this apparent increase in evidence for armoured cavalry in the later Roman Empire, it is perhaps worth considering the tactical changes the Roman Army underwent in this time.

The Ancient Roman Soldier: Evolution Over A Millenium

Roman Military Equipment from the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome (2nd edition) by M.C. Bishop and J.C. Coulston The authors of this book have gathered a wealth of evidence from all over the Roman Empire's excavated examples as well as pictorial and documentary sources to present a picture of what range of equipment would be available at any ...

The Ancient Roman Soldier: Evolution Over A Millenium

While it may come as a surprise to many, but the Roman army equipment's archaeological evidence ranges far back to even 9th century BC, mostly from the warrior tombs on the Capitoline Hill. As for the literary evidence, they mention how the earliest Roman …

The Marian Reforms | The turning point in Roman history

The Marian Reforms were a turning point in ancient Roman military history. They were instituted by Gaius Marius in 107 BC and can be broken down into three major reforms: First, Marius established Rome's first ever standing army (up until the Marian Reforms, Rome had simply enlisted its soldiers on a season-by-season basis and dissolved its ...

Legion XXIV - Equipment Page

Most items of Roman military equipment were decorated to some degree, but it is the pugio scabbard that the individual soldier paid most attention to. The amount and nature of this decoration appears to have been determined by the amount of money the legionary was prepared to pay, thus reflecting his pride and wealth.

Weapons of the Romans – Bryn Mawr Classical Review

The stimulus for this book, which originally appeared in 1993 as Les armes des romains, seems to have been F.'s observation that French scholars lagged behind in military equipment studies.His zeal to restore national pride is admirable, but the fact that 'there has been no overall work on Roman military equipment and weapons published in France' since 1926 (8) may not be the best …

Greece & Rome, Vol. 48, No. 2, October 2001

during the imperial period that we first find clear evidence of the Roman military's involvement in capturing and transporting exotic animals. A number of contemporary sources suggest that hunting indeed formed an important part of a soldier's duty. For example, the Cestes of Julius Africanus, written between 228 and 231, recommends the capture of

Claudian Army Reforms - Livius

Claudian Army Reforms. Claudian Army Reforms: modern name of a wide-ranging series of changes of the Roman military, initiated early during the reign of the emperor Claudius (41-54). Claudius. The Roman army was, essentially, created by Julius Caesar, whose legions, although meant to be temporary, became permanent units, surviving their founder.

Ancient Roman Military, Army - Crystalinks

Far from the Roman military being solely a defence force, for much of its history, it was a tool of aggressive expansion. Notably, the Roman army had derived from a militia of mainly farmers, and gaining new farming lands for the growing population or later retiring soldiers was often one of the campaigns' chief objectives.

Why did the Roman Economy Decline? | by Mark Koyama | ART ...

The main component of the Roman state was the army. The army grew considerably after Diocletian's reforms. The exact size of the new army is subject to considerable controversy. John Lydos estimated the Roman army to comprise 389,704 men and a navy of 45,562. The largest estimates are based on Agathias and date from the mid-sixth century.

The Roman Military - Ancient Military

The Roman military was the most successful and powerful in history, dominating the Western world for over a thousand years. The size, strength and organization of their infantry force wouldn't be equaled again for another thousand years. The Romans believed themselves to be descendents of Mars, literally the sons of the war god.

Battle of Cannae (216 BC) | The Success of the Roman ...

The Battle of Cannae, 216 BC, remains one of the greatest military reversals of all time. The Roman army, which outnumbered its Carthaginian enemies and was undoubtedly better equipped, should have logically won an easy victory. However, Hannibal and his army arrived at Cannae coming off two consecutive victories over Roman legions, at Trebia ...

Roman Military Medicine | Battles and Bandages

4 Garrison, Fielding H. Notes on the History of Military Medicine. Washington: Association of Military Surgeons, 1922. Print. 5 Baker, Patty. "Archaeological Remains as a Source of Evidence for Roman Medicine." UCL. University College London, n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2012. Images (in order of appearance) Saint-Pol, Bibi.

Roman Empire - KS2 History - BBC Bitesize

Roman army. The armour, equipment, weapons and tactics employed by the Roman army. 01: 20. ... The legend of the Ninth Legion brings in to question the accuracy of historic sources.

The decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire

the Roman Army, I address policy decisions of emperors, logistics, pay and supply of the armies, military losses and recruitment, strategies and tactics, and the overall decline in population across the empire. By taking this broad approach and examining numerous factors, I will present


CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION Released under the provisions of Law no. 203/2015 on Defense Planning, the Military Strategy of Romania renders operational the defense dimension established in the National Defense Strategy for 2015-2019, specifies the implementation of objectives in the Governing Programme at the military level, and describes the ways and concepts derived from the

Legion XXIV - Historical Links Page

schola imperium time line - links - catapult - siege - fashion * home * site index * legion links * supplier links * * events * standards * equipment * weapons * etruscan time line * republic time line * * imperial time line * byzantine time line * * roman names * roman numerals * ...

Roman Navy | Roman Naval Warfare -

Roman Military Equipment from the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome (2nd edition) by M.C. Bishop and J.C. Coulston The authors of this book have gathered a wealth of evidence from all over the Roman Empire's excavated examples as well as pictorial and documentary sources to present a picture of what range of equipment would be available at any ...

The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire ...

The Making of the Roman Army explores how a small citizen militia guarding a village on the banks of the Tiber evolved into the professional Roman army. Lawrence Keppie pays particular attention to the transitional period between Republic and Empire - the time of Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, and Augustus. Keppie overcomes the traditional dichotomy between a historical view of the Republic and ...

Roman military personal equipment - Wikipedia

Roman military personal equipment was produced in small numbers to established patterns, and used in an established manner. These standard patterns and uses were called the res militaris or disciplina.Its regular practice during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire led to military excellence and victory. The equipment gave the Romans a very distinct advantage over their barbarian enemies ...

Ancient Roman Military |

The authors of this book have gathered a wealth of evidence from all over the Roman Empire's excavated examples as well as pictorial and documentary sources to present a picture of what range of equipment would be available at any given time, what it would look like and how it would function.